Цілі: вдосконалювати навички аудіювання, читання й усного мовлення; вдосконалювати навички монологічного висловлювання з опорою на лексико – граматичну структуру; розвивати мовну здогадку; виховувати увагу, інтерес до англійської мови.
Doex. 1, р. 16.
2.Reading and speaking
Do ex. 2, p. 16.
3. Grammar practice
Do ex. 5, p. 11.
Match the headings (1-8) with the paragraphs (A-G). There is one extra heading.
WHO SPEAKS ENGLISH?
A. Today, English is the second or third most popular mother tongue in the world, with an estimated 350-400 million native speakers. But, crucially, it is also the common tongue for many non-English speakers the world over, and almost a quarter of the globe’s
population – maybe 1.5-2 billion people – can understand it and have at least some basic competence in its use, whether written or spoken.
B. It should be noted here that statistics on the numbers around the world who speak English are unreliable at best. It is notoriously difficult to define quite what is meant by “English speaker”, let alone the definitions of first language, second language, mother tongue, native speaker, etc. What level of competency counts? Does a thick creole (English-based, but completely incomprehensible to a native English speaker) count? Just to add to the confusion, there are at least 40 million people in the nominally English-speaking United States who do NOT speak English. In addition, the figures, of necessity, combine statistics from different sources, different dates, etc. You may well see large variations on any statistics quoted here.
C. But best recent estimates of first languages suggest that Mandarin Chinese has around 800-850 million native speakers, while English and Spanish both have about 330-350 million each. If second-language speakers
are included, Mandarin increases to around 1 billion, English to over 500 million, Spanish to 420-500 million and so on, >
D. In terms of total population, in a world approaching 7 billion, the top three countries by population are China (1.3 billion), India (1.2 billion) and USA (about 310 million), followed by Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Russia and Japan. Thus, the USA is by far the most populous English-speaking country and accounts for almost 70 % of native English speakers (Britain, by comparison has a population of just over 60 million, and ranks 22nd in the world). India represents the third largest group of English speakers after the USA and UK, even though only 4-5 % of its population speaks English (4 % of over 1.2 billion is still almost 50 million). However, by some counts as many as 23 % of Indians speak English, which would put it firmly in second place, well above Britain. Even Nigeria may have more English speakers than Britain according to some estimates.
E. English is the native mother-tongue of only Britain, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and a handful of Caribbean countries. But in 57 countries (including Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Philippines, Fiji, Vanuatu, etc.), English is either as its “official language” or a majority of its inhabitants speak it as a first language. These are largely ex-colonial countries which have thoroughly integrated English into its chief institutions. The next most popular official language is French (which applies in some 31 countries), followed by Spanish (25), Arabic (25), Portuguese (13) and Russian (10).
G. Many countries recognize the importance of English as an international language and teach it in schools as their foreign language of choice. English is the most widely taught foreign language in schools across the globe, with over 100 countries – from China to Russia to Israel, Germany, Spain, Egypt, Brazil, etc., – teaching it to at least a working level. Over 1 billion people throughout the world are currently learning English, and there are estimated to be more students of English in China alone than there are inhabitants of the USA. A 2006 report by the British Council suggests that the number of people learning English is likely to continue to increase over the next 10-15 years, peaking at around 2 billion, after which a decline is predicted.
1) We can’t estimate the real number of non-native English speakers now.
2) Why English is the main language in many countries.
3) English is going on to expend and is used in more and more countries.
4) We can’t estimate the importance of using English at all.
5) It is understood at the present time that English has become the first language for many people in many countries.
6) There are some countries where English is used more than in Britain where English is the mother-tongue.
7) The number of English learners is increasing year by year.
8) Nowadays it is quite difficult to differ level of ability in using foreign languages.
Key: 5 A, 8 В, 1 C, 6 D, 2 E, 3 F, 7 G.
5. Grammar practice
Do ex. 6, 7, p. 12.
6. Reading and speaking
Do ex. 4, p. 18.
Do ex. 5, p. 18.
Do ex. 3, p. 17.