UNIT 8



UNIT 8

People and Society

Ex. 2, p. 239

Organizations, groups, citizens, nation, democracy, law, rights, independence, state, country, power, government, future, mankind.

Ex. 3. p. 239

In 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Ukraine.

In 1991 the Ukrainian Parliament proclaimed Ukraine’s independence and the formation of the independent state of Ukraine.

The right to self-determination is provided by the United Nations Charter and other international documents.

All Ukrainian Referendum involved 84.18 percent of citizens, of which number 90.35 percent supported the Independence Act of August 24.

L. Kravchuk was elected President of Ukraine.

State power of Ukraine is based on the division of authority into legislative, Executive and judicial.

The President is the highest official of the Ukrainian State, vested with supreme Executive authority.

The Verkhovna

Rada (Parliament) of Ukraine is the sole legislative authority. Judicial power is vested in the courts of law.

The National Anthem has been performed since. January 1992 (music by M. M. Verbytskyi).

Independence Day is the National Holiday and is celebrated on August 24.

Ukraine took the historic step toward a nuclear-free, peaceful future, bringing mankind closer to the long-cherished goal and total nuclear disarmament.

Ex. 4, p. 240

1- a; 2. c; 3. b; 4. a; 5. b.

Ex. 5, p. 240

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

BRITAIN

THE USA

Britain is a constitutional monarchy: Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state. In practice she reigns, but does not rule. The country is governed, in her name, by the Government, a body of ministers, which is called the Cabinet (consists of 22 leading ministers), who are responsible to Parliament.

The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Each state has its own government (“state

government”). In some ways the USA is like 50 small countries. The Constitution proclaims a federal system of government which keeps both the states and the federal power from getting too much power. The federal power is located in Washington, D. C. it is based on legislative, Executive and juridical branches of power. The Executive branch is headed by the President who is assisted by the Vice President. The President proposes bills to Congress, enforces federal laws, serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and, with the approval of the Senate, makes treaties and appoints federal judges, ambassadors and other members of the Executive Departments. Each Cabinet head holds the title of the Secretary and together they form a council called the Cabinet.

The position of a British Prime Minister (PM) is in direct contrast to that of the monarch. >

Today the Governments power is concentrated in the hand of the Prime Minister, who at the same time is the leader of his party. He is the head of the government and has a seat in the Commons. Among other responsibilities, he recommends a number of appointments to the sovereign, including senior clergy of the Church of England.

The legislative power is vested by the Constitution in the Congress, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Theoretically all citizens of both sExes over 21 years of age have the right to vote, but in fact this is not so because of many special requirements. The Senate consists of 2 members from each state. Chosen for 6 years, one-third retiring or seeking re-election every 2 years. The House of Representatives consists of 435 members elected every second year on the basis of population, >

The Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and House of Commons.

The Sovereign formally summons and dissolves Parliament and generally opens each new annual session with a speech from the throne. The House of Lords is made up of hereditary peers and peeresses, including the law lords appointed to undertake the judicial duties of the House, and the Lords Spiritual (the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and other 24 bishops). The House of

The Executive power is vested in the President, who holds office for 4 years, and is elected, together with a vice-president chosen for the same term, by electors from each state. Nowadays the President may be elected two times only. The President must be a natural-born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years, and at least 35 years old. The presidential election is held every forth year (leap year) on Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

Commons is elected by universal adult suffrage and consists of 650 Members of Parliament (MPs). There are approximately 650 seats for them. The chief officer of the House is the Speaker, elected by MPs to preside over the house. It is in the House of Commons that the ultimate authority for lawmaking resides.

A general election must be held every five years. Eighteen is the minimum voting age; candidates for election must be over 21. There are four main political parties: Conservative, Labour, Liberal and Social Democratic parties. The winning party forms the Government. Ministers are chosen by the Prime Minister (leader of winning party). The second party becomes official Opposition and forms the Shadow-Cabinet. MPs who are members of the Opposition are called back-benchers.

Traditionally, the candidates belong to one of the two main political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The Republicans tend to be more conservative and have more support among the upper classes. The Democrats tend to be more liberal and have more support among the working class people.

Ex. 6, p. 241

Ukraine has a presidential-parliamentary system of government.

It has separate Executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The prime minister is appointed by the president with the consent of more than one-half of the parliament. The prime minister, first deputy prime minster, three deputy prime ministers, and cabinet ministers are appointed by the president based on a submission by the prime minister. The Verkhovna Rada (parliament) initiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, and approves the budget.

The Ukrainian political system has a popularly elected President, a 450-person single – chamber Parliament – the Verkhovna Rada, which members are elected at general, equal and direct elections. Parliamentary elections take place every four years in the last week of March. Voting, which is not compulsory, is by the secret ballot and from the age of 18.

The head of Ukraine is the President. He is elected every 4 years. The President of Ukraine appoints the Prime Minister with the consent of the Verkhovna Rada, appoints members of the Cabinet of Ministers, heads of central bodies of Executive power, as well as heads of local state administrations. The President of Ukraine is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

The Verkhovna Rada works at a session basis. It elects the Chairman from its membership. The Chairman conducts meetings of the Verkhovna Rada and organizes its work. The main function of the Verkhovna Rada is making laws. It also calls for elections of the President, gives consent for the appointment of the Prime Minister by the President, performs oversight of the activity of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, declares wars and concludes peace upon the President’s proposal adopts the State Budget and controls the Execution of it.

The Ukrainian Constitution states that the National symbols of country are the National Flag, the National Emblem and the National Anthem. They were adopted by the Verkhovna Rada in 1992. The Ukrainian flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width. The top is blue and the bottom is yellow. These are the colours of the sky, the mountains, the rivers and the golden fields of our beautiful country. Blue yellow (or gold) were symbols of Kyivan Rus long before the introduction of Christianity. These colours can be found on the ancient emblems of the cities of

Mirgorod, Lubny, Pryluky and some others. The National Emblem of Ukraine has changed during the millennium of Ukrainian history owing to various political and other factors. The contemporary national coat of arms of Ukraine is a trident. The first image of a trident appeared in the ninth century A. D. when Igor, Prince of Kyivnn Rus sent ambassadors to sign a treaty with the Byzantine Emperor and they sealed the document with a trident. The secrets of the origin and meaning of the Ukrainian trident have still not been completely solved by scholars. The archaeological finds of tridents in Ukrainian go back to the first century. It is thought that the trident represented the division of the world into three spheres: the earthly, the celestial and the spiritual – as well as well as the union of the tree natural elements: air, water and earth. In 1918 the trident was adopted as the national symbol of independent Ukraine. The Anthem of Ukraine “Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy…” is of quite resent origin. In 1863 the Lviv journal ”Meta” published the poem of the scientist and poet Pavlb Chubynsky which was later mistakenly ascribed to Taras Shevchenko. In the same year it was set to music by the Galician composer Mykhaylo Verbytsky, first for solo and later for choral performance. As a result of its catchy melody and patriotic lyrics, the song quickly acquired popularity. In 1917 the song was officially adopted as the anthem of the Ukrainian state. The Soviet Ukraine had no anthem of its own until 1949.When Ukraine gained its sovereignty “Ukraine has not yet perished” became the state anthem again.

Ex. 8, p. 242

The article

States that…

Territorial supremacy

The territory of Ukraine is inviolable within the Existing borders.

Citizenship of Ukraine

All citizens of Ukraine are equal irrespective of their origin, social and property status, political and religious views.

Ecological security

Ukraine take measures for environmental protection.

Economic independence

Ukraine has the right to possession, utilization and managing of all the national we>

Self-determination of the Ukrainian nation

National rights and dignity of all the people of Ukraine are respected

Government by the people

The Declaration considers the will of all people of Ukraine to create a democratic state.

Ex. 1, p. 243

1. join; 2. join; 3. join; 4. join; 5. unite.

Ex. 2, p. 244

1. g; 2. b; 3. a; 4. c; 5. f; 6. e; 7. d; 8. c; 9. b; 10. a; 11. i; 12. d; 13. e; 14. f.

Ex. 3, p. 245

Corrupt – корумпований; to corrupt – псуватн(ся), підкупати; initials – ініціали; aimless – безцільний; flourishing – процвітаючий, успішний; inheritance – спадщина; revelation – відкриття, виявлення; restriction – обмеження; united – об’єднаний.

1. Корумпований суддя; корумповані службовці у паспортному відділі. Корумпованого мера не було переобрано.

2. Суддя Хенсон не може бути підкупленим. Чи вважаєте ви, що молоді люди зіпсовані життям у великому місті?

3. Б. Р. – ініціали Бетсі Росс. Його ініціали – П. Ф. У.; вони означають Пітер Френсіс Уайт.

4. Його безцільне життя; порожні суперечки. Він безцільно прямував через поле.

5. У нього був успішний бізнес. Він почав працювати в процвітаючому комп’ютерному бізнесі.

6. Титул перейшов у спадщину до старшого сина.

7. Його було звільнено після того, як виявили, що секретні файли пропали.

8. Немає обмежень на кількість грошей, які ви можете зняти.

9. Організація Об’єднаних Націй – це організація багатьох країн, утворена для підтримки миру в світі.

Ex. 4а, р. 245

1. а; 2. b; 3. е; 4. сі; 5. а; 6. с.

Ex. 4b, р. 245

А

В

С

1. Аварійна посадка

1. Політична ціль

1. Виносити пропозицію

2. Позачергова сесія Конгресу

2. Загальна мета

2. Підтримувати пропозицію

3. Аварійний вихід

3. Довгострокова мета

3. Відхилити пропозицію

4. Честолюбна мета

4. Прийняти пропозицію

5. Чітка ціль

6. Гідна мета

Ex. 1, p. 246

1. B; 2. C; 3. A; 4. A.

Ex. 2, p. 246

1. B; 2. C; 3. A; 4. C; 5. B; 6. C; 7. C; 8. C; 9. C; 10. A; 11. B; 12. B.

Ex. 3, p. 247

1. Making;

2. Bathing;

3. To make (making);

4. To see;

5. Opening;

6. To do;

7. To say;

8. Seeing;

9. Skating and skiing;

10. smoking.

Ex. 4, p. 247

1a – interested;

1b – interesting;

2a – Exhausted;

2b – Exhausting;

3a – bored;

3b – boring;

4a – embarrassing;

4b – embarrassed;

5a – Excited;

5b – Exciting.

Ex. 3, p. 249

1. j; 2. a; 3. e; 4. f; 5. g; 6. h; 7. k; 8. d; 9. b; 10. c; 11. i.

Ex. 4, p. 249

A

The Council of Europe is an organization promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation. It was founded in 1949, has 47 member states With some 800 million citizens, and is an entirely separate body from the European Union (EU), which has only 27 member states. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws. The two do however share certain symbols such as the flag of Europe. The Council of Europe has nothing to do with either the Council of the European Union or the European Council, which are both EU bodies.

Article 1(a) of the Statute states that “The aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realizing the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress.” Therefore, membership is open to all European states which seek European integration, accept the principle of the rule of law and are able and willing to guarantee democracy, fundamental human rights and freedoms. While the member states of the European Union transfer national legislative and Executive powers to the European Commission and the European Parliament in specific

Areas under European, Council of Europe member states maintain their sovereignty but commit themselves through conventions (i. e., public international law) and co-operate on the basis of common values and common political decisions. Those conventions and decisions are developed by the member states working together at the Council of Europe, whereas secondary European Community law is set by the organs of the European Union.

The Council of Europe works in the following areas:

Protection of the rule of law and fostering legal co-operation through some 200 conventions and other treaties, including such leading instruments as the Convention on Cybercrime, the Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, the Conventions against Corruption and Organized Crime, the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, and the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.

CODEXTER, designed to co-ordinate counter-terrorism measures.

The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ)

Protection of human rights, notably through:

The European Convention on Human Rights;

The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture;

The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance;

The Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

The Convention on the Protection of Children against SExual Exploitation and SExual

Abuse;

Social rights under the European Social Charter;

Linguistic rights under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; minority rights under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

Media freedom under Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Convention on Transfrontier Television.

Protection of democracy through parliamentary scrutiny and election monitoring by its Parliamentary Assembly as well as assistance in democratic reforms, in particular by the Venice Commission.

Promotion of cultural co-operation and diversity under the Council of Europe’s Cultural Convention of 1954 and several conventions on the protection of cultural heritage as well as through its Centre for Modern Languages in Graz, Austria, and its North-South Centre in Lisbon, Portugal.

Promotion of the right to education under Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights and several conventions on the recognition of university studies and diplomas (see also Bologna Process and Lisbon Recognition Convention). Promotion of fair sport through the Anti-Doping Convention and the Convention against Spectator Violence.

Promotion of European youth Exchanges and co-operation through European Youth Centers in Strasbourg and Budapest, Hungary.

Promotion of the quality of medicines throughout Europe by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and its European.

B

For over 50 years the Council of Europe has been working to build a Europe United on the basis of freedom and democracy, human rights and the rule of law. The Council was set up by ten west European states. Since then the European landscape has changed, and today the great majority of European countries belong to go to the Organization.

How the Council of Europe works. The Committee of Ministers comprises the foreign ministers of the 34 members states, it meets twice a year in ordinary session and may also held special or informal meetings. The Minister’s Deputies meet every month. The Committee of Ministers also serves as a permanent forum of discuss European

Co-operation and common political problems.

The Parliamentary Assembly comprises 239 representatives. The Parliamentary Assembly meets in full session four times a year. By debating problems of modern society and making recommendations to the Committee of Ministers, it is the starting point for many of the Council of Europe’s activities. The Parliamentary Assembly has created a ‘‘special guest” scheme to welcome representatives of non-member states from central and eastern Europe and designed to prepare them for full membership of the Organization.

The Council works to harmonize policies and adopt common standards practices in member states. It operates by bringing, at different levels, parliamentarias, ministers, government Experts, local and regional representatives, youth associations and INGOs (international non-governmental organizations) to pool their knowledge and Experience. There have been adopted over 155 European conventions. Subjects range from the protection of computerized data, violence at sporting events and nature conservation, to mass media, cultural co-operation and the prevention of torture. The activities carried out in the Council of Europe affect all our lives.

Ex. 3, p. 252

A) THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION

The name “United Nations”, coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the “Declaration by United Nations” of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis powers. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations.

The United Nations (abbreviated UN in English, and ONU in its other official languages), is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, development, social, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of Chinn, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States, from August to October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 member states. The United Nations officially came into Existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories. United Notions Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.

United Nations Chart. The Charter is the constituting instrument of the Organization, setting out the rights and obligations of member states, and establishing the United Nations organs and procedures. An international treaty, the Charter codifies the major principles of international relations – from the sovereign equality of states to prohibition of the use of force in international relations in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.

The Preamble to the Charter Expresses the ideals and common aims of all the peoples whose governments joined together to form the United Nations:

“WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international

Law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, “and for these ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength, to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples.

“HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have Exhibited their full powers found to be m good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.” Since 1945 the number of member states has increased from 51 to 19.3. Today there are 193 member states, including every internationally recognized sovereign state in the world but Vatican City. From its offices around the world, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). Other prominent UN System agencies include the World He>

The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, with further main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the UN Security Council, the UN General Assembly, the UN Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies.

The Charter provides that the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any authority other than the UN. Each UN member country is enjoined to respect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influence its staff. The Secretary-General alone is responsible for staff selection.

The Secretary-General’s duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions, and consulting with member governments regarding various initiatives. Key Secretariat offices in this area include the Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten international peace and security.

The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership:

1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states that accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.

2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

B)

1. The Secretary-General acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the UN. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon, who took over from Kofi Annan in 2007 and has been elected for a second term to conclude at the end of 2016.

2. UNES(X) (United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization) was created in 1946 to build lasting world peace based on the intellectual and moral solidarity of humankind. Its areas of work are education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture and communication. Its programmes aim at promoting a culture of peace and human and sustainable development. They focus on: achieving education for all; promoting natural and social science research through international and intergovernmental scientific programmes; supporting the Expression of cultural identities; protecting and enhancing the world’s natural and cultural heritage; and promoting the free flow of information and press freedom, as well as strengthening the communication capacities of developing countries. UNESCO maintains a system of 192 National Commissions and is supported by some 4,000 UNESCO Associations, Centres and Clubs. It enjoys official relations with nearly 340 international NGOs and some 25 foundations and similar institutions. It also works with a network of 7,900 educational institutions in 176 countries. UNESCO’s governing body – the General Conference – is made up of all 192 member states and meets every two years. The Executive Board, consisting of 58 members elected by the Conference, is responsible for supervising the programme adopted by the Conference. UNESCO has a staff of 2,160 from some 170 countries – more than 680 of whom work in UNESCO’s field offices worldwide.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Since its creation in 1946, the United Nations Children’s Fund has evolved from an emergency fund to a development agency, committed to protecting the rights of every child to survival, protection and development. Its work is guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child – the most widely accepted human rights treaty in the world. UNICEF believes that caring for children and protecting their rights are the cornerstones of human progress. UNICEF works in partnership with governments, civil society and other international organizations to achieve goals for children. It is engaged in every facet of child he>

6. Security Council

The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Council has 15 members: five permanent – China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States – and 10 members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. General Assembly

The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ. It is composed of representatives of all member states (193), each of which has one vote. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority.

Ex. 1. p. 255

1. judicial;

2. Parliament;

3. Executive;

4. election;

5. citizens;

6. political;

7. discussed;

8. passport;

9. vote;

10. government.

Ex. 2, p. 256

1. come;

2. to smoke;

3. to speak;

4. to operate;

5. to see;

6. attending;

7. making;

8. telling;

9. fall;

10. washing.

Ex. 4, p. 256

1. A; 2. I; 3. D; 4. E; 5. B; 6. K; 7. J; 8. F; 9. G; 10. H.

Ex. 6, p. 258-259

1. B; 2. C; 3. A.

Ex. 4, p. 265

President’s Safari Holiday.

December Elections.

Double Road Killing.

Winner’s Death In Malibu.

What Are Three People Apprehended for?

Ex. 6. p. 266

UKRAINIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

There are many countries in the world and each country has its own characteristics. It differs from others in culture, in mentality and therefore in the lifestyle. The educational systems of each country are also different. And Ukraine is not an Exception. Ukraine has got rather developed system of education.

Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. It’s ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education establishment. It is also ensured by the development of Extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.

Children in Ukraine start gaining their education at the age of three when they attend kindergarten. The real school starts for them when they reach the age of six or seven. General secondary education is free and compulsory. There are many gymnasiums, lyceums and private schools in Ukraine. The secondary school must secure a uniform level of knowledge necessary for each student. The stages of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are; primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. At the age of ten they become pupils of junior classes. It is not necessary to attend school after finishing junior classes, but the full secondary school programme includes senior classes (age 15-17). These two years of study are obligatory for gaining higher education. So pupils finish school at the age of 15 or 17. Those who do not wish to continue studying may enter vocational schools, different kinds of technical schools, or just find their jobs and start working.

Having graduated from school at the age of 17 you may become a student at the establishments of high education; a university, a college, an institute. All applicants

Must take competitive Exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. And after that you may become a postgraduate student (in case one wants to work at his or her scientific research and receive the scientific degree of Master or Doctor of Science).

The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private feepaying primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying departments. Graduates from the Ukrainian institution of higher learning become famous writers, prominent diplomats, economists, chemists, mathematicians and others. But this stage in the life of Ukrainian people may not be the final in learning. Because the well-known English proverb says “As you live so you learn”.

DO YOU KNOW YOUR LEARNING STYLE?

People take in and process information in different ways. Some may prefer to receive new material in one specific way, while others may be equally comfortable regardless of the modality in which information is delivered. For students who show a clear preference, knowing their learning style is crucial. An awareness of a student’s learning style can help students make the most out of their educational Experience by using study strategies geared towards their particular strengths.

There are three primary learning styles: auditory, visual, and tactile.

Auditory Learning Style

Auditory learners receive and process information best through hearing. They probably prefer material that is spoken aloud rather than written on the board or read in a book. When reading, they may find it easier to comprehend the material if they use a strategy like saying words or chunks of tExt out loud, or repeating important Information several times. It may help to state directions out loud so that they are heard in order to be best understood. It’s a good idea for auditory learners should always make sure that there are no distractions that will prevent them from hearing Information, and teachers should make sure to verbally Explain written concepts for the benefit of these learners.

Visual Learning Style

Visual learners primarily use sight to receive and process information. They are adept at processing pictures and written words. In fact, in order to fully process information they receive verbally, they may have to write it down so they can look at it. These students may find it helpful to see or present information in the form of pictures, maps, and diagrams, or to visualize things in their minds. Visual learners may want to make sure they are always in a position in the classroom where they can see things clearly, and teachers should be sure that verbal information is also presented in written form for these students.

Tactile Learning Style

Tactile learners receive and process information through their sense of touch. They learn best by actually doing something, rather than rending or hearing about it. They might prefer to build, move around, draw, or engage in some other physical activity to fully process information. Manipulatives, computers, role playing, and other physical tools and activities can enhance the learning Experience for these students. Tactile learners should try to get physically involved in their learning whenever possible, and teachers can help by offering opportunities for hands-on learning Experiences. Some students may present with a combination type learning style. For Example, they may be equally strong at processing information both visually and tactilely. In these cases, a variety of strategies that enhance each learning style may be most helpful for these students.

To offer the best opportunities for learning, both students and teachers can benefit from an awareness of individual learning styles. Students who know their learning style can tailor their learning strategies and study habits to best suit their own needs.

Ex. 1, p. 267

1. independent;

2. republic;

3. Constitution;

4. judicial;

5. legislative;

6. elections;

7. laws;

8. bills;

9. President;

10. administrations;

11. power;

12. Prime Minister;

13. responsible;

14. Supreme;

15. justice;

16. Executive.

Ex. 2, p. 268

1. reading, to read;

2. looking;

3. to solve, looking;

4. seeing;

5. to buy;

6. standing, selling;

7. help, solve;

8. want, seeing;

9. to see;

10. to think, to buy and to sell, lending and borrowing.

Ex. 4, p. 269-270

1. C; 2. F; 3. B; 4. D; 5. A.


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