Unit 3



Unit 3

Lessons 1-2

Ex. 5

1. to end up

Three quarters of this ends up in landfill.

2. clean

We take a look at a charity project that brings clean water to the villages in Uganda.

3. urban area

More and more have moved to Delhi as their forests have been cut down for urban development.

4. to move

More and more have moved to Delhi as their forests have been cut down for urban development.

5. cut down

More and more have moved to Delhi as their forests have been cut down for urban development.

6. charity project

We take a look at a charity project that brings clean water to the villages in Uganda.

Ex. 6

1. Past industrial activities

2. waste and rubbish

3. major concern

4. a lack of care over industrial and waste management

5. stop destroying the world and work hard to protect it

Ex. 9

On November 11, 2007 a powerful storm arose in the north-eastern

Black Sea. By the end of it, Russia and Ukraine faced serious environmental damage from an oil spill and a potentially acrimonious diplomatic situation.

According to Ukraine’s Emergency Situations Ministry, after the storm four ships had foundered, another six had run aground, and two tankers were damaged in the narrow Kerch Strait, at the entrance to the Sea of Azov between Russia and Ukraine. One of the damaged ships was the Volgoneft-139, which was carrying more than 4,000 tons of fuel oil. Smashed by 67 mph winds and 16- foot waves, the ship split in two, spilling more than half its cargo (Ukrains’ke Radio, November 13).

The only good news from the storm was that the ecological catastrophe could have been much worse. The majority of the nautical damage took place in the Kerch Strait, where, despite the storm alert, there were nearly 150 ships. Besides the Volgoneft-139, the dry cargo bulk carrier Volnogorsk sank with its cargo of about 2,600 tons of sulphur near Kerch port, while the Kovel freighter, also carrying sulphur, crashed into the sunken Volnogorsk and slid beneath the

waves. The Georgian vessel Khach-izmail also sank. Another sulphur carrier, the Nakhichevan, wrecked. Groundings included the Ukrainian dry cargo vessel Vira Vo – loshyna, beached near Kapsel Bay. and the Turkish Ziya Kos and a Georgian ship carrying about 800 tons of metal, both of which ran aground close to the port of Novorossiysk. Completing the scene, the Dika barge, loaded with 4,149 tons of fuel oil, was beached on a sandbar at Tuzla, along with the Demetra barge, which was carrying 3,757 tons of fuel (Kommersant, November 12). In all, about 10 ships sank or ran aground and 20 sailors remain missing.

Black Sea neighbours were quick to assist, with the Romanian Navy’s Constanta Maritime Rescue Centre director, Adrian Alexe, responding to a request from Russian naval authorities for the 100-ton capacity Gigant floating crane to assist commercial vessels sunk in the storm (Rompres, November 13).

The Anger pointing has already started. Krasnodar governor Alexander Tkachev, said. “Some 30,000 birds have died and it’s not possible to count how many fish. The damage is so great that it’s hard to assess. It can be equated with an ecological catastrophe” (Interfax. November 13). The damages caused by the wrecked ships have been estimated at up to $163 million. Russian and Ukrainian tugs have hauled the stern of the Volgoneft – 139 into Kavkaz, where an additional 933 tons of fuel oil were pumped out (Interfax-Ukraine, November 15). While cleanup crews are already attacking the oil drifting onto beaches, the authorities are nervously awaiting possible additional pollution from sulphur granules (Itar-Tass, November 15).

A Russian-Ukrainian intergovernmental committee began meeting on November 15 in Kerch to discuss the progress of search-and-rescue and cleanup operations. Deputy Transport Minister Boris Korol heads the Russian delegation, while participating Ukrainians include officials from the Emergencies Ministry, Ministry of Natural Resources, and the Foreign Ministry. Deputy Minister of Transport and Communications Vladimir Korniyenko heads the Ukrainian team (Itar-Tass, November 15).

The catastrophe has already wreaked havoc on the Sea of Azov’s commercial fish stocks, including gobies and Azov anchovies, while World Wildlife Fund officials remain concerned about the fate of dolphins located around the Kerch Strait; two dead dolphins have already washed ashore.

The incident has caused additional friction between Russia and Ukraine, as the Kerch strait passage remains poorly delineated 16 years after the collapse of the USSR. Ukraine insists on dividing the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait along the conventional Soviet Union border that passed through two midpoints of the coast of the Kerch Strait and the Taganrog Bay, while Russia insists on an equal delimitation of the sea area.

The ultimate diplomatic wrangle may occur further to the south, however, as Turkey has insisted for years that unrestricted tanker traffic through the Turkish Straits is an environmental hazard. In 2006 more than 36,000 vessels transited the Turkish Straits, with tankers carrying over 140 million tons of oil under treaty rights guaranteed by the 1936 Montreaux Convention, despite constant Turkish warnings that such, constant passages, working out to a tanker every 15 minutes, were a prelude to disaster. Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych said that the government is now studying the possibility of limiting tanker passages through the Kerch Strait and is consulting with maritime specialists. They are particularly interested in Turkey’s experience with the Bosporus and Dardanelles channels. If there is any good news for Moscow, its prime oil export facility at Novorossiysk is south of the straits and Kyiv currently does not plan to claim compensation from Russia for ecological damage (Rosb>

Lesson 3

Ex. 5

1… the illegal dumping of rubbish or bulky items on the land not licensed to receive it.

2… significant amounts of money to clear away.

3. Dumping household, industrial and commercial waste illegally…

4… waste disposal sites and recycling centres where people can safely and legally dispose of unwanted items.

5… it may contain broken glass, asbestos, toxic chemicals or other hazardous substances.

6… they will take necessary measures.

Ex. 7

The Place where I Live Our planet is in trouble! Almost every day we seem to hear of yet another problem affecting the environment – and what a list of problems! – pollution, acid rain, global warming, the destruction of rainforests and other wild habitats, the decline and extinction of thousands of species of animals and plants… and so on. Nowadays, most of us know that these threats exist and that humans have caused them. Many of us are very worried about the future of our planet and unless we can find a way of solving the problems we have made then the environment will suffer even more.

It all sounds so depressing – but we certainly mustn’t despair! Every one, whatever age we are, can do something to help slow down and reverse some of the damage. We cannot leave the problem-solving entirely to the experts – we all have a responsibility for our environment. We must learn to live in a sustainable way i. e. learn to use our natural resources which include air, freshwater, forests, wildlife, farmland and seas without damaging them. As populations expand and lifestyles change, we must keep the World in good condition so that future generations will have the same natural resources that we have.

Here are just a few ideas how to protect our environment and some ideas how to help you to do something about them.

1) Sort out your rubbish. Organic matter e. g. potato peelings, left over food, tea leaves etc. can be transferred straight to a compost heap in the garden and used as a good, natural fertiliser for the plants. Aluminium cans, glass bottles and newspapers etc. can be taken to bottle and can banks and wastepaper skips. Find out where they are by asking your local council or library.

2) Use recycled paper to help save trees. Everyone in Britain uses about 6 trees worth of paper every year. Chlorine bleach is usually used to make newspapers and this pollutes rivers. Its better to use unbleached, recycled paper whenever you can.

3) Take your old clothes to charity shops. Some are sold, others are returned to textile mills for recycling.

4) Try to avoid buying plastic. It’s hard to recycle. One way to cut down on plastic is to refuse to use carrier bags offered by supermarkets and use strong, long lasting shopping bags instead, or re-use plastic bags over and over again, until they wear out.

5) Don’t buy over-packed goods. Many things we buy have unnecessary amounts of plastic and paper around them.

6) Use less energy by switching off lights when rooms are not in use, not wasting hot water, not overheating rooms and not boiling more water than necessary when making a cup of teal

7) Use a bicycle or walk instead of using a car for short trips.

8) If you spot pollution, such as oil on the beach, report it to the local council. If you suspect a stream is polluted, report it to the local Environmental He>

9) If you use chlorine-based bleach or detergents containing phosphates, you are contributing to water pollution. Try to buy “environmentally-friendly” products.

10) Don’t buy aerosols containing CFCs. Actually, it’s not a good idea to buy any aerosols. Even “ozone friendly” aerosols may contain harmful chemicals and spray cans are difficult to dispose of – they cannot be recycled. Pump-action sprays are a much better >

Lessons 4-5

Ex. 4

1. d

2. f

3. a

4. g

5. b

6. h

7. c

8. e

Ex. 5

1. wildlife

2. habitat

3. environment

4. reduce

5. property

6. vegetation

7. predict

8. farmland

Ex. 9

1. This wonderful waterfall is always admired by holidaymakers.

2. The beauty of the Ukrainian Carpathians was discovered by Dick last summer.

3. An article about the thriving wildlife of the UK will be written by the journalist.

4. The environmental problems are being discussed by the pupils now.

5. The physical properties of soil have been influenced by the development of industry in this area.

6. Their habitats are being lost by more and more animals from year to year.

Lessons 6-8

Ex. 1 (b)

1. a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct

2. protection to these species (forbidding hunting, banning their habitats development, etc. ) to prevent this

3. an indicator of the likelihood of that endangered species continuing to survive

4. assessing the conversation status of a species

Ex. 4

1. T

2. T

3. F

4. F

5. F

Ex. 5

Giant turtle

Гігантська черепаха

Panda

Панда

Sea cow

Морська корова

Polar bear

Полярний ведмідь

Kangaroo

Кенгуру

Kiwi

Пташка ківі

African elephant

Африканський слон

Sea lion

Морський лев

Ex. 8

Dear Editor!

I am writing to you to express my opinion about endangered African elephants.

I have found out that the African elephant is considered a threatened species. In 1970, biologists estimated that there were 1. 5 million African elephants in the wild. By the 1990’s, that number had dropped by 67 %, leaving a wild population of only 500,000 elephants.

The elephant’s natural range has also diminished markedly. Whereas elephants once ranged throughout much of Africa, they are now mostly confined to parks and preserves south of the Sahara Desert. Only about 20 % of their range is under some form of protection. Even within protected areas, elephants often fall victim to poachers and other pressures from man.

Elephant population and range vary naturally with fluctuation of the food and water supply, but the influence of the modern world is accelerating the elephant’s disappearance.

The reasons of the dramatic decline in the African elephant population and range are the following:

The Ivory Trade

– In spite of the 1989 CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) ban on ivory collection, illegal hunting of elephants for their tusks has continued unabated in parts of Africa.

– The resumption of trade in elephant ivory by several countries, including South Africa, Japan and China, has increased the threat to elephants.

– Poaching is on the increase in Kenya due to the illegal harvesting of ivory.

Farming

– Destruction of natural savanna vegetation due to bush clearing and plowing is the most significant cause of elephant habitat loss.

– Disturbance from slash-and-burn cultivation in tropical forests leads to lower elephant population densities.

– Conflict over resources and access to land increases between elephants and humans as settlements develop around permanent water sources.

– “Patchwork” development – where farms are distributed as “islands” – fragments elephant habitat.

Domestic Livestock

– Large numbers of grazing cattle and other livestock compete with elephants for water and vegetation.

– Heavy grazing by livestock depletes bush cover.

Logging and the Bushmeat market

– Logging affects elephants directly, through habitat loss, and indirectly, through the disturbing influence of forestry operations.

– ging roads and farmland penetrating into once inaccessible areas have made the elephant more vulnerable to poaching for the bushmeat trade.

– Though consuming elephant meat is considered “taboo” in many parts of its range, it is very popular in much of Central and West Africa.

I would like to suggest publishing such articles in your newspaper to change attitudes towards nature and help people imagine wildlife and humans living in harmony.

Yours faithfully,

Olga Petrova

Lesson 9

Ex. 3

1. reduce

2. vegetation

3. plant

4. change

5. human beings

6. animals

7. carbon dioxide

8. carbon dioxide

9. grow

10. waste

11. hands

12. planet

Ex. 6

1. am

2. made

3. had

4. put

5. was

6. finished

7. we are going to put

8. comes out

9. will be

10. have learnt

11. is

12. should be congratulated

13. think

14. should be given

Lesson 11

Ex. 1

1. Mr. Brown says that major geographical features of Kent are determined by a series of ridges and valleys running east – west across the country.

2. Kelly turned attention that there was a new expensive property ever there.

3. Steve pointed out that many animals and birds suffered because of the man’s activity.

4. Dan says he has watched a TV programme about the Greenpeace, a global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behaviours, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace in the world.

5. Kim says that people should take care of nature.

6. Miss Johnson points out that almost three-quarters of the land in England is used for food production.

Ex. 2

1. discussed

2. were talked about

3. grows

4. Have you ever heard

5. is being planned

6. has already been published

Ex. 3

1. c

2. e

3. h

4. a

5. d

6. b

7. g

8. f

Ex. 4

1. is

2. combines

3. gather

4. bring

5. earn

6. have

7. –

8. spend

9. –

10. fills

11. wait

12. save up

13. have

14. carries

Ex. 7

School Environmental Project

Project Description

To establish an environmental project within the grounds of Ham School which will be led by the children and the parents of the school. It will incorporate a small pond, growing and maintaining plants, recording wildlife and recycling waste which will encourage practical

Conservation work and increase children and adults’ knowledge of the environment

Case study

You could turn your school into an eco – school. This could include developing some of the following ideas:

– A school garden growing organic vegetables – these could even be used in your Home Economics lessons.

– A school composting site that could be used to help your school garden flourish.

– A school energy survey could be carried out. This could then be followed by some key implementations such as energy efficient light bulbs and signs educating people to switch lights off.

– A wildlife area in your school grounds could be started including a pond and a variety of vegetation to encourage a wide diversity of species.

– A sculpture made of old packaging and products could be made.

– Water from your school roof could be collected and used to water your school garden.

– Recycling facilities for paper and cans should be available to all students and staff.

– An Environment Committee (Eco – group) could be set up in your school to help implement and monitor some of the ideas described above.

How will the project affect your school?

The whole school will benefit from the environmental education and may be able to use some of the key ideas generated in their work.

Various departments can get involved, for example the art department can design information posters and the science department can use statistics generated in class.

The work can contribute to various extra curricular activities, such as the Duke of Edinburgh Award.

How will your project affect your local community?

The local community should be notified through word of mouth or newsletters about the success of the environmental projects. This will aim to inspire local people to contribute to helping improve the environment.

Other schools in the area should also be informed of such environmental projects, so they too can implement some of these ideas.

What are the long-term implications of your project?

Educating the youth of today is one of the best ways to address the environmental problems we face. This education should be passed on to future generations and should hopefully result in changes to our outlook.


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